Finally, to exhaust and dismiss the subject of liturgy, it remains to say that liturgy itself can be a form of spirituality. However, it may be that Romanians dramatize to an exceptional extent, admiring or rejecting, accepting wholesale or refusing on principle.

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Corina Teodor. Romania, London, Haus Publishing Ltd. Georgeta Fodor.

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Colin Swatridge. Although present in many other indo-european and North-American mythologies, the wolfspetze and the beserker had some interesting individual features.

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Beyond mythology lies an entire web of historic sources written and epigraphic who stresses out the fact that these warriors were not only the fruit of a rich imagination. They actually were present in such rational institutions as the roman army or, later, in the armies of early medieval northern kings.

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This paper tries to emphasize a few aspects of this complex problem. Keywords: Germanic, Auxilia, Mythology, Wolfspetze, Berserker In the Germanic ideology and practice war conquered everything and colored everything, said rightfully Georges Dumézil 1 referring to the traditional Germanic society where war became a ritual justified by theology: primarily the assimilation of the battle with the idea of sacrifice, when both the victor and the defeated offered their sacrifice in blood, considering the fact that war and death brought an unique and privileged experience which made the warrior to get closer to the inspired poet or the visionary prophet 2.

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Another magical feature was to induce to his warriors a state of blind, almost pathological, fury: all his men were fighting without armor, like wild wolves or miracle watts dating august. They were biting their shields and they were strong like bears or like bulls.

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They were killing everyone, and nor steel nor fire had no effect on them. It is what they call the Berserkgang 4.

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In the same order, Tacitus, speaking about the Chatti, he asserted that: they are fierce, but they enhance the savageness of their Lecturer Ph. Just only the seeing of the army of ghosts exercitus ferralis puts you in all the fears of death no enemy can withstand this infernal view: because in all battles the first things which are defeated are the eyes 5.

In any case, Iulius Cesar, Tacitus, or Snorri Sturlusson or even the pictures on the Trajan s Column, describe a class of specialized warriors in missions of reconnaissance and guerrilla warfare.

What is a common feature of all this sources is the uncommon savageness and cruelty of these warriors, especially of the ones called berserker or wolfspetze the wolf skinner.

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This class of warrior induced their state of rage by consuming a potion made of a powerful psychotropic alkaloid - muscarinic - with strong hallucinogen effects. The induced state, especially in the case of young warriors, was a specific one, producing a transmutation of their humanity in a state of aggressive, blind fury 6.

That is why, Eliade considered that, in the case of these warriors, in order to become redoubtable fighters it was necessary to magically assimilate the animal behavior, especially of the wolf s behavior.

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So, he was dressed in the wolf s skin in order to impart the way a încercat cineva dating online this predator, or in order to symbolize his transformation in a wolf.

As long as the individual was wearing this skin he was no longer human, but a predator: he was not only a fierce and invincible warrior, dominated by the furor heroicus but he became a beast.

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He no longer had to do with the ways of humans The young warriors no longer were satisfied just with the war prays, but he behaved like animals, consuming for instance human flesh 7.

This cannibalism originated from the idea that by consuming the flesh of the defeated enemy a part of his spirit miracle watts dating august transmitted. In all cases, even we have some specific descriptions, it cannot be stated that we are dealing with a common practice. The transformation in animal-warrior was made after an initiatory fight during which the courage of the candidate was put to the test.

The same Tacitus gives us the example of the Chatti tribes, where the solicitant never cut his hair or beard before killing an enemy or, at the Thaifali where he had to kill a bear or a boar or, in the case of the Heruli had to go to his first battle miracle watts dating august fight empty handed.

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Saxo Grammaticus, much later in the 9 th century, shows exactly the role of these berserker as elite troops of the king s Army, beside their military role they were considered as protectors of the king s court - and implicitly Odin s favorite warriors - as guards of the sovereign function in the Germanic divine tripartite mythology 8.

The battles on earth represent trials during which the fallen ones are chosen to enter the warrior heaven. The warrior god intervenes in the moment of the fight in the favor of the chosen one by inducing this state of intense fury and, on the other hand, ties the hands of the enemy with the so called her-fjodur military bound.

This induced state of rage made the berserker to feel relieved of all earthy things and concentrate only on his main purpose: to became an einheiar chosen warriorhonored after his death to enter the Germanic heaven generically called Walhalla 9, a term which can be translated as the hall of the chosen ones an there to spend his afterlife in training and feasting.