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This paper will discuss some of these. The maps, faiths, beliefs, our maps are consistentwith the principles and laws of reality, the more they are suitable for man, with strongimpact on social efficiency. First of all, he maintains that the value which a person gives to a risky asset is notthe same with the expected gain of this one but, merely, with the expected utility of it — theimportance given presently by a certain person for obtaining the respective amount. The average growth rata is calculated as the difference between dynamicenvironment index, expressed as a percentage. Along with these two components, in the last years of the past decade a new approach was also added, namely the electronic services e-services. DSpace software was implemented to help manage library collections and to enable us a possible connection to the Europeana digital library.

In their e-sience Data Curation Report Lord and Mcdonald defined seven expecially relevant reasons to keep data on a long-term scale: possible re-use of old data for new scientific problems retention and preservation of unique observational data, which cannot be recreated retention and preservation of those data, whose maintaining is cheaper than its regenerating enhancing already existing data, which are available for research activities for compliance with legal requirements for the validation of already published research results for the use in teaching These points show very clearly that keeping research data on a long-term basis, has a lot advantages for academic institutions.

At the end stood the decision to promote this idea in the different organizational bodies of the university and after a positive feedback, the application of a defined project, the Project Digital Data Preservation was presented to the university s board. Who is responsible and who accepts this responsibility? Which external service providers are employed? What are the specific needs of researchers? After finishing phase 3 there will be a report about the experiences, the acceptance within the sciences and also about the necessary resources for the attention of the university s board.

Our impression after the first two phases is, that ETH Zurich will decide to run a permanent, centralized service for the preservation of relevant research data. Conclusion Although the digital age is well under way, till today at most universities one crucial detail remains to be worked out.

Only at a few places are existing written and accepted strategies, how to structure, collect, index and store vast amounts of digital information in a way that allows future generations of scientists to recover and to use it. The scientists as data creators have to define, which data in which profoundness must be selected, the librarians are responsible for structuring and indexing the data, the IT people have to tell us, in which way on which technical platforms the data will be stored and the university managers have to allocate the financial resources.

Hedstrom, Margaret. Digital ken baumann dating istoric. A time bomb for Digital Libraries. Klump, Jens et al. Data publication in the Open Access Iniciative. Lord, Philip, Mcdonald, Alison. Data curation for e-science in the UK: an audit to establish requirements for future curation and provision. Neuroth, Heike et al.

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Eine kleine Enzyklopädie der digitalen Langzeitarchivierung. Rothenberg, Jeff. Avoiding technological quicksand. Finding a viable technical foundation for digital preservation. Smith, Vincent S. Towards a database of everything. There are analyzed the types of specific activities and the manner in which university libraries should respond, so as to support the transposition in practice of the strategic directions i A series of new services are proposed, based on the concept Future Internet wherewith a university library may contribute to the education process, ken baumann dating istoric order to support the development of the cohesion education research innovation.

Key words: European strategy i, digital content, Future Internet, university libraries, service. The paper summarises the actions proposed by the i European Strategy regarding the development of digital content in various areas. Specific types of activities are analysed along with the manner university libraries should respond in order to implement the strategic directions of i The paper presents a series of new services based on the "Future Internet" concept, services that allow an university library to contribute to the educational process supporting the development of education - research - innovation cohesion.

Two elements that are also defining the i have played a key role in the European programmes and strategies: Digital Literacy and avoiding of the "digital divide"; Development of digital content. Along with these two components, in the last years of the past decade a new approach was also added, namely the electronic services e-services.

The i Digital Agenda The Digital Agenda launched in September has the following strategic objectives: - a unique and dynamic digital market; - interoperability and sud-asian dating site-ul toronto - reliability and security; - fast and super-fast Internet access; - research and innovation; - increase the degree of Digital Literacy, development of digital proficiency and inclusion; - social advantages of ICT in the European Union.

As it can be noticed, among these objectives, Internet access and Digital Literacy are directly oriented towards the citizen and implicitly towards electronic services.

The main specific strategic actions, out of which, 23 are proposed by Member States aim for a "centred, sustainable and inclusive" growth of the European economy.

Informatics in the 21st Century Trends At the end of the 20th Century, informatics was profoundly marked by the outburst of the PCs, software applications developed on this platform and spread in all domains of activity. Besides, libraries, in the ample modernisation movement, have adopted the same general view. In the 21st Century, informatics seems to follow other directions, presented below: - shifting from PC informatics to general platforms made available to several users simultaneously; - development of complex hardware and software infrastructures, such as Grid, Cloud, etc.

In the last decade, the library sector was strongly influenced by concepts and activities concerning document digitisation. Financing of numerous research projects on national and European level oriented towards the "digital library" concept, in many countries, as well as European documents concerning the establishment of national ken baumann dating istoric libraries led to the emergence of numerous digital collections. These are created in libraries as well as in other structures that don't necessarily have library functions but are employed in the process of information-documentation for various users' communities, researchers' communities, public employees, etc.

The emergence of digital collections implicitly led to the necessity of collaboration and cooperation on institutional and functional levels, directly affecting the services utilised.

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In this respect Europeana Europeana Digital Library is significant. The existence of the digital content, sometimes its overlapping, brought to life new concepts such as users' management, digital collection management, etc. These services can be found in a larger or smaller extend in computerized libraries with digital collections backed by an suitable software instrument. The fundamental difference is the shifting from a service oriented towards library to a service oriented towards Web, sustained by ken baumann dating istoric communication networks.

In a broader approach, this kind of services can be stored on CLOOUD type platforms, available for libraries and implicitly for users. In this respect the transition from the digital library to the virtual one becomes obvious. The elements that define these two concepts are presented in the illustration below: Digital library collection : o repository of digital documents and information managed with ICT instruments; o High performance computing resources made available for specific functions semantic search, automated classification and tabulation of information, automated keyword and knowledge extraction ; Virtual Library: o Shared repository of knowledges, physically dematerialized; 10 24 International Conference on Library and Information Science BIBLIO o virtual organisation administering digital and informatics resources for a community ensures the management of information, documents and users ; o collaborative environment for education and scientific research.

University libraries have all necessary elements for the development of content-based e- Services. The main arguments are: - numerous users that can also produce quality, up-to-date content in various areas professors and researchers activating in universities ; - the current trend in education of promoting e-learning systems; - suitable ICT infrastructures present in all universities high-speed networks, equipment, Grid platforms, Cloud platforms, etc.

On the other hand, objectives of universities related to the development of ICT abilities for students, along with study support on electronic media, concur in a definite manner to the emergence of procedures strictly related to e-services. The schematic diagram of the operation-oriented e-services platform for Libraries is described as fallows: The functional scheme of the service platform for libraries Conclusions Creating hardware and software platforms to support e-services within a library may be a new approach towards modernisation of libraries.

Achieving such a model to comply with the present information trends involves a significant effort for organisation, standardisation and cooperation. Equally, the interoperability of library systems must have a central role in the strategy and the policy of creating a services platform for libraries.

This implies the transition from "raw data" to the computerised service, thus e-services. Banciu, Doina, Năstase, Pavel. În: Computerworld, martiepag Banciu, Doina. Digital Libraries from Concept to Practice.

The presentation of the Romanian ken baumann dating istoric is followed by a study structured on four investigation directions: general information about the EDCs, staff and IT equipment; analysis of the websites; analysis of the collections and informational behaviour shown by the users; organisation of access to information and collaboration in the EDC. Benefiting from the support of the Representation of the EC in Bucharest, these structures, integrated in the Europe Direct Network, ensure the communication of the priorities presented by the EU institutions and their development areas are subordinate to this mission.

Key words: European Union, European Documentation Centre, info-documentary structure, information resources, survey. Introduction was an exceptional year that witnessed the accession of Romania in the EU. The EDC mission is to grow, organize, process, enrich and host collections of books, serials, articles, electronic publications in the EU field, as well as to create the informational environment in order to support the educational and research activities about EU for the Romanian university community.

In keeping with this trend towards greater openness, the Library makes its collections accessible to non-specific users - the business community, high-school economy teachers and lawyers, economists - people with an interest in learning about the impact of the process of Community integration.

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The aim of this paper is to present some results from research undertaken into the informational behavior of these new info-documentary structures users. Furthermore, data 27 BIBLIO International Conference on Library and Information Science from this research will be used in a future study to make a comparison between the preferences and the way of documentation of the Romanian customers and the users in countries where the first centres were established since the early 60s.

Romanian network presentation The ken baumann dating istoric of the network meant 12 centres founded inas an effect of the application forms sent to the European Commission Representation in Bucharest; intwo other centres got successful admission; finally, has marked the entry of the most recent 2 new members in the Romanian EDCs family. This is a proof of our pro-european orientation and redefining the libraries and universities according to the information needs of the 21st century new customer.

In terms of network architecture, 13 centres are operating in public and private universities, 2 centres are hosted and coordinated by Central University Libraries and 1 centre in a Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

This diversity of structures which datând trei săptămâni chosen to integrate an EDC renders the specificity of the Romanian network, taking into account the fact that on European level this kind of centres are run in the universities.

The analysis of the map with the geographical position of the network figure 1 highlights the equilibrium as regards the disposal on the territory as well as the fact that the important universities host this kind of centres, with ken baumann dating istoric few exceptions.

Among the tools and services provided by an EDC we mention: 1. Assistance and training to use resources and for information retrieval; 3. Figure 1. For example, the students from the Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry are interested, while elaborating Toxicology papers, in European legislation and policies related ken baumann dating istoric this subject i. Contamination via chemical products.

Typically, the documentation and information resources owned by an EDC provide both high level documentation and general information. The first category includes books and periodicals printed, electronic CDs, DVDs, and online databases, and the second - brochures, posters, flyers distributed free of charge by Publications Office.

Even more, when there is organized an event about the communication priorities of the European institutions, the EDCs have the possibility to order free of charge from the bookshop, as privileged partners, publications which would support that particular activity.

Considering the diversity of the host-structures as well as the different degree of training of the staff, in there were organized Training sessions and specialization courses for the professionals involved in collection management from the European documentation centres. It is remarkable and at the same time an exemple to be followed by all the employers in the Romanian system of libraries the fact that the Representation focusses on the human factor in the network, the one which actually ensures descentralised communication, localised debates, in other words the fulfilment of the challenges faced by the Directorate-General Communication of the European Commission.

The communication with the users is achieved by means of EDCs web pages i. European Documentation Centres questions and answers In order to increase the efficiency of these structures - integrated or not in the traditional info-documentary structures librariesbut also to assess how they found their specific place in the Romanian market of the specialized information providers, we conducted a study among the coordinators of the centers, during the second semester ofcompleted during February The conception of such a study was so much more necessary as the literature in the field included an extremely small number of analyses regarding the efficiency of these structures and their impact on the target population.

Even more, the most recent study [3], expanded on the level of the whole EU does not include Romania, as it was accomplished during the first half ofwhen these CDEs were not present in the newly European member.

This survey was administered to the coordinators of the Romanian EDCs and follows the same line as undertaken by the managers from the other European countries, as it is structured on four investigation directions: general information about the EDC, staff and IT equipment; analysis of the website; analysis of the collections and informational behaviour shown by the users; organisation of access to information and collaboration in the EDC Data referring to the duration in the network, type of EDC, position, staff, IT equipment 15 29 BIBLIO International Conference on Library and Information Science Out of the total number of respondents, 1 EDC was founded in the same year as the accession of Romania to EUbut most 7 EDCs signed the agreement with the CE Representation in ; the years and brought 2 more similar centres in the network.

As regards the type of organisation which hosts the EDC, 10 of the given answers mention that the EDCs are hosted by universities 8 public and 2 private universities and 2 belong to different structures 1 Central University Library, 1 Chamber of Commerce. The alternative would have been the selection ken baumann dating istoric certain fields, which would have meant that the publications received from the Office of Publications covered only those fields.

All the coordinators who participated in the survey considered that the space offered to the centre answers the demands for a new and modern information centre, but the number of seats available for study varies from 1 or 2 to a few dozens a maximum of As it could have been foreseen, the greatest number of places is offered to the users by the CDEs included in the great libraries, whose space destined to study is larger.

The analysis of these data could make us draw certain conclusions about the concern to make available for the users a database with all the bibliographic records for the collection of publications.

The presence of Intranet in the EDCs 3. The second part of the survey is wholly dedicated to the websites of the centres, considered to be a modern, quick and efficient means of communication for the users as well as in the network, on national and European level. All the answers indicated the IT technician as responsible for the technical maintenance of the website. The analysis of the content available on the website highlights the presence of the following types of information figure 3.

Types of information offered in an EDC Figure 4.

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The SEC documents are the Commission internal working papers, drafted by the general directorate and they can be accessed on request. EuroVoc users include the European Parliament, the Publications Office, national and regional parliaments in Europe, plus national governments and private users around the world. Apart from the documents received from the Publications Office an inter-institutional office whose task is to publish the publications of the EU institutions Decision no.

Correlating the quantity, variety and scientific content of the publications from the collections other sources than OPOCEthere are noticed more numerous and diverse collections in the case of the EDCs hosted by the important libraries.

(transl) The Burden of History

It is perfectly understandable taking into account that these structures have acquired their collections in time, using all means of enriching their repository acquisitions, donations, exchange and in certain cases legal deposit. The analysis of the users information searching behavior has shown the most common areas in which EDC dating windows app seek information see columns A and the areas in which the coordinators consider to be the most difficult to find information that meets the needs of EDCs users columns B figure 5.

Users information searching behavior Knowing the reasons which make the access to information about EU difficult, or on the contrary, easy to find, is extremely important so as to be able to overcome the obstacles and improve the information searching process. It is also considered helpful the fact that EDC users are familiar with the tools for accessing EU information, but also the fact that information is objective and up to date.

These remarks could be interpreted as a lack of concern for the investigation of the users information searching behavior and of willingness to help them in their documentation process. In the opinion of the same coordinators, the main aspects which count for the users, when they do their research about the EU are the availability of information in digital format, ease of access to the information, the availability of this information in lingua materna and information timeliness ken baumann dating istoric its updates in real time.

The impartiality of the available information is also appreciated and the fact that it can be easily grasped. The reasons why the beneficiaries search documents about the EU are presented below. The reasons why the beneficiaries search documents about the EU Figure 7.

It is a good starting point if the users are looking for information and services provided by the EU but they don't know their way around EU sites. Among other preferences we mention: which is available in Romanian as well, Cadmus is a database of publications by the European University Institute - EUI - community- European Integration Online Portal, previously mentioned, a site with news and information about EU, in Romanian as well containing information on EU funding grants, European funds and community programs from Europe, European funds In order to establish which are the services offered by the EDCs to the users, the respondents had to choose from a variable number of options, including the possibility to add the services which are offered but not mentioned in the survey.

Theproblems to face in this respect were of the following kind: what repartitions besides thenormal one may be linear repartitions of certain sums of aleatory variables?

The conclusionbeing reached is that only the normal repartition is a repartition limit 1. Utility and the principle ken baumann dating istoric the decreasing marginal utilityThe hypothesis of the expected utility is a result of the solution given by DanielBernoulli in to the famous paradox St.

Petersburg enounced in by NicholasBernoulli. The development is grounded by the principle of the representation of theconsumption plans from the perspective of the expected utility expected value - E vasaverage of the possible values as a result of the choice of an action direction, weighted withthe probabilities of coming out of these values25 and is considered a good evaluation of theaverage gains or losses which we can record within a ken baumann dating istoric series of experiences 1.

Bernoulli proposed the following game St. If B hits the escutcheon for the first time with the second throwing, A pays him22 ducats and so on, the bank doubling the steak as many times hitting the escutcheon isdelayed by another throwing.

If B hits the escutcheon for the first time by the n-ththrowing, he gains 2n ducats. The paradox is that the amount that can be gained is infinite. The mathematic expectation of B can explain this thing. The probability that the escutcheonappears after the first throwing is of VS. The probability that the mark appears from thefirst throwing and the head appears by the second throwing will be The gain, if the coming out of the escutcheoncoming out is delayed up to the n-th throwing counts for 2n ducats.

However, while the expected gain isinfinite, we cannot presume, at least intuitively, that somebody will want to pay an infiniteamount in order to enter this game. The solution of Daniel Bernoulli was based on twoideas that have been considered as important by the economists of the XX century. First of all, he maintains that the value which a person gives to a risky asset is notthe same with the expected gain of this one but, merely, with the expected utility of it — theimportance given presently by a certain person for obtaining the respective amount.

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On theother hand, Bernoulli maintains that the utility that people grant to a gainu vis notlinearly dependent on the gain vbut increases with a rate which gets reduced — theprinciple of the decreasing marginal utility by adding a dollar to a fortune of 5 dollars maymean a significant increase but means lesser and lesser to the extent the wealth is larger. Bernoulli suspected that the expected utility of the game St. Petersburg is finite if theutilities decrease to the extent the amount increases.

Consequently, it will desirable to pay afinite amount of ken baumann dating istoric in order to enter this game, even if the expected gain is infinite. Von Neumann and Morgenstern take over this idea in order to build up a system ofcalculation of the equilibrium under the conditions when people are adverse to risk.

Theprinciple of the decreasing marginal utility is one of the pillars of the theory of the assetsevaluation under conditions of uncertainty. A significant element for the risk analysis is thetendency to the mean, discovered by Francis Galton. The regression at mean expresses thefact that, on long term basis, all the individuals tend towards an average value — in time,the extremes tend to approach the mean.

The experiences achieved by Galton by the end ofthe XlX century have demonstrate the existence of this phenomenon in the heredity domainand set up this truth as being generally valid as universal statistical rule. Those who studiedthe outcomes obtained by Galton have noticed the general applicability in many domains,mainly in meteorology, the equities market, the accidents frequency and the economiccycles΄ domain.

For our analysis, this discovery is important from the angle of the statisticalestimations of the coefficients of causality΄ relations or of connection between two aleatoryvariables. The identification in probabilistic terms of the parameters of an equation showingus the relation between two or more aleatory variables has been called regression in order toreflect the regression phenomenon submitted above.

A model of the risk managementTo put in relație și dating the relevant theories meant to obtain a measurement unit of therisk requires the construction of mathematical models and their testing in order to establishthe best methods or principles that may apply. We shall analyze further on, the significanceand the main arguments regarding the utilization of a mathematical model and, afterwards,we shall approach the most frequently used methods in order to create models.

A mathematical model is a simplified mathematical representation of a system,process or theory of the real world with the purpose to understand, anticipate or evencontrol their behavior. The utilization of the mathematical instruments with the purpose of analyzingthe economic processes led to the creation of a number of econometric models thatborrowed concepts from mechanics. Frisch referred to the Econometrics Society that cameout as a result of the consolidation of communities of economists- mathematicians and thatwas supposed to gain more and more terrain during the coming years.

These propensitiestowards models with mechanical character, borrowed from physics, have been frequentlyfought with. From all the great theoreticians in economics, a percentagehigh enough were acquainted with at least a small training in mathematics.

A model for the risk measurement is aiming to find out a relation that allows acertain drawing of the future fluctuations of the portfolio value. Most of the times this canbe obtained by the achievement of certain predictions regarding the changes taking place atthe level of the price for each instrument composing the analyzed portfolio, based on thehistory of these instruments prices only.

This entire construction implies the modeling oftwo components: the temporally dynamics of the yields, namely the modeling of theevolution in time of these yields; and the yields distribution at a certain moment. The necessity of the risk managementStrictly academically, the companies seem to pay an interest somehow curious forthe risk administration and management. Thisis the reason for the act that the exposure to the specific risk will be not rewarded by themarket.

The investing agents are forming their portfolios composed by the risk-free assetalong with a mix of risky assets, while the weights relating to the two categories of equitiesare set up depending on the investors΄ aversion to risk.

According to Modigliani — Millertheorem which is also known as the theorem of the irrelevance of the capital structure ,the value of a company is independent of the risk structure. Thus, the companies shouldmaximize the expected profits, irrespectively the risk they are exposed to, taking intoaccount the fact that the shareholders might ken baumann dating istoric the risk by diversification.

E-nformation S. C est une démarche nécessaire, mais pas suffisante pour le développement durable des structures info documentaires, étant donné que les valeurs et les convictions des bibliothécaires, plutôt traditionnelles et fermement enracinées, limitent la réactivité au changement et à l'innovation.

Nevertheless, the economists Modigliani and Miller showed the reasons that are notallowing this theory to be validated in practice. The risk management acquired a significantimportance this being due to the imperfections of the capital market, such as the taxes andthe ken baumann dating istoric costs.

The present market value of a company will be diminishedby the costs concerning the reorganizing process or, in most severe circumstances, by theactivity cease. This is a reason for risk management may increase the value of the companyby means of reducing the bankruptcy probability.

Numerous systems of taxation contain various modalities of carryingforward the taxation advantages for the past losses if, ceteris paribus, the diminishing of thevolatility of the future gains will lead to the decrease of the up-dated value for all the futurepayments and will generate the increase of the company΄ s value. One of the biggest sources of bankruptcy is givenby the incapacity of the companies to honor its debts. Therefore, to the extent the degree ofrunning into debt of a company is higher, its risk will be higher.

The appropriatemanagement of the risk can maintain a high level of running into debt rates allowing thus amore aggressive extension of the company, as much as this financing source is notexpensive. By participating to theactivity of the company, its employees have themselves an implicit exposure to the risksthat the company they work for is facing.

Anghelache, G. Lintner, J. Mossin, J. Singer, B. Sharpe, W. Treynor, J. For an actual analyse of phenomena development over time, ken baumann dating istoric use as studyinstrument the statistical adjustment series, the purpose of ascertaining them in last periodand, by extrapolation to predict future developments.

Key words: variability, dinamic series, interdependence, relative indicator,growth rateJEL Classification: C22Some general aspectsThe chronological series composed of two rows of parallel data, the first rowsshow variation of the time periods variation and the second rows show the variation of thephenomenon or characteristics studied over time.

The chronological series has thefollowing features: variability, homogenity, interdependence to its terms. The variability isbecause each term is obtained by centralizing of individual data different as level ofdevelopment. These individual data exist because, that in social phenomena acts besides theessential causes, determinants causes, and a sufficient number of nonessential causes. When analyzing time series, we have to take into account the fact that they are prepared forthe complex units.

For them, the degree of variation of indicators includes structuralvariations from one time unit to another.

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Interdependent of terms: the indicators are successive values of the somephenomena recorded in the some teritorial or administrative units. In time series need toknow the trend curve specific to each stage of development, and statistical expressing is theaction of the low even causing them.

Taking into account all these particularities, thestatistical analysis of chronological series shall be based on a system of indicators thatcharacterize many quantitative relations of the inside of series and at the period to whichdata is referring. The absolute indicators of the time series are expressed in the units ofmeasurement of the phenomenon under study.

In this paper we uses :y 0y Absolute increase or decrease is calculated from the level of a single periodconsidered as base of reference or from a period of time to another. In the first case, weobtain absolute increase or decrease calculated dating amherst ma fixed base, in the second case weobtain absolute increase or decrease calculated with the chained base known as absoluteincrease or decrease with variable base 1.

In the time series with y i terms i 0 n we obtain n absolute increase. The relative indicators of the time series are very important for analyzing thedynamic of the socio-economic phenomena. These indicatos are used frequently to determine the proportions and corellationsbetween the various branches and sectors of the national ken baumann dating istoric size showinghow many times a phenomenon over time has changed is called dynamic index and it canbe calculated with fixed base and variable base.

Calculation of absolute and relative indicators conduct to the characterization ofindividual relationships between the terms of a series, taken by two. These indicators shows the variability of the terms of a time series as a result ofthe influence of all causes and conditions that determine the evolution of this phenomenon. When analyzing dynamics of phenomena can calculate the average level andaverage rate.

The average of the time series. If we represent on an axis the terms of a chronological series of intervals, they willappear as:y 0 y 1 y 2 y 3. The average of the time series of interval be calculed using simple arithmeticaverage :ni0yiy.

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If in the inside of the same series can be found opposite trends, that on the graph,corresponding to a change in the form of a second degree parabola with a maximum orminimum point, then the series should be divided into two ken baumann dating istoric, calculating the respectiveaverage indicators. The average growth rata shows how much this phenomenon has increased in sizerelative,in the analyzed period, on average from one unit to another of interval.

The average growth rata is calculated as the difference between dynamicenvironment index, expressed as a percentage. R I ;In conluzion, the indicators obtained by processing a chronological time series canbe organized in a sistem, where each indicator may emphasize one aspect of thedevelopment of the phenomena studied. Thenumber of terms must be large enough to satisfy the law of large numbers, they interpretstatistical regularities evolutionary phenomena.

When working with heterogenues time series, with various development trends itis necessary to calculate these indicators on each step as partial indicators, or indicatorsobtained from processing is not real and practical and theoretical conclusions have notmade proper basis and can not be calculations used for forecast.

Anghelache, C. Box, G. Bry, G. Biji, M. Isaic-Maniu, Al. Therefore, change management expresses the excellence of skills, abilitiesand skills that can demonstrate a manager. The efficient management of change,organizations thrive and managers who consistently fail to manage change successfully isamong managers.

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Change can occur accidentally or consciously, can generate untolddrama or binding process can be full of confidence. Vision and passion, managementopportunities, management motivation and providing competitive products and servicesthan the competition are just some of the processes that support change management insmall firms. These elements are more obvious management in small firms than in largefirms because no hierarchical levels makes the reaction speed in small firms is much higherthan in large firms.

In the small firms, the change is an everyday component amanifestation of rapid response, primarily related to leadership, while big companies keepchanging organizational structures, which means often a delayed reaction andcumbersome.

Therefore, the change in small firms is a competitive advantage that mustalways be maintained. Key words: management, change, marketing, competitive advantage,organization, motivation, firms, efficient, paradigm. JEL Classification: M Management and change daily. General management teaches us to use theories, systems, methods and practices ofmanagement of resources so that it can ensure the stability of an organization, in terms ofcompetitiveness.


But the stability of an organization requires daily and long termmanagement of tens, hundreds and thousands of changes that occur in the organization'sfunctions, as well as a whole. Practical everyday by managing change within theorganization, expresses the quality management gives brightness stability and continuityorganizational entity.

Every time spatial stability of a company is changed. Constantlychanging composition of production factors, internal cultural environment changes, changethe external environment of the organization.